By weighing the empty measuring cup and subsequently filling the cup with cellulose, the bulk density was calculated. David Brower, former Executive Director of the Sierra Club, in chapter 8 of his semi-autobiographical environmental book Let the Mountains Talk, Let the Rivers Run: A Call to Save the Earth (1995, Harper Collins), titled "Forest Revolution," advocated for kenaf paper use and explained its many advantages over wood pulp. Hybrid composites of wood flour/kenaf fiber and polypropylene were prepared at a fixed fiber to plastic ratio of 40 : 60 and variable ratios of the two reinforcements namely 40 : 0, 30 : 10, 20 : 20, 10 : 30, and 0 : 40 by weight. © 2021 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd. All Rights Reserved, Analysis of Micro-Porosity Defect and Remedial Measures in Crankshaft (Ductile Iron) â A Case Study, Microstructure of Activated Carbon Particles Coated on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for Wastewater Treatment Application, Aspects of Titanate Coupling Agents and their Application in Dental Polymer Composites: A Review, Linear Density and Surface Morphology of Kenaf Fibres from Different Extraction Methods, Investigation on Elastic Behaviour of DP800 Dual Phase Steel, Effect of Ozone Treatment on Properties of Screw Pressed and Non-Screw Pressed Empty Fruit Bunch Medium Density Particleboard, Chemical and Thermal Analysis of Silk and Silk-Like Fibres, Modelling of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Ribbed Slab under Multiple Ribbed Condition. In order to modify and possibly improve the adhesion between the fibers and the matrix, the fibers â¦ Many of the facilities that now process Southern pine for paper use can be converted to accommodate kenaf. The water retting method produces finer fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other methods produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex.  Fig.  Textile Research Journal, 72(7) (2002) 618-624. The first novel to be published using 100% kenaf paper was The Land of Debris and the Home of Alfredo by Kenn Amdahl (1997, Clearwater Publishing Company). The stems are 1–2 cm diameter, often but not always branched. There is no fiber treatment for both mats. China: Hong Ma (red hemp) has been officially changed from "Yang Ma" (foreign hemp) during the Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976. Woven kenaf hybrid composites of different weave designs of plain and satin and fabric counts of and were manually prepared by a vacuum infusion technique. The leaves are 10–15 cm long, variable in shape, with leaves near the base of the stems being deeply lobed with 3-7 lobes, while leaves near the top of the stem are shallowly lobed or unlobed lanceolate. Parikh, T.A. Obendorf, Chemical and Biological Retting of Kenaf Fibres. Kenaf fibre (KF) is extracted from the bast of the plant and has been extensively used as a jute-like material in the past. Caulfield, G. Kovacsvolgyi, and B. Destree Abstract Considerable interest has been generated in the use of lignocellulosic fibers and wastes (both agri - cultural and wood based) as fillers and reinforce- ments in thermoplastics. It is also useful as cut bast fibre for blending with resins in the making of plastic composites, as a drilling fluid loss-preventive for oil drilling muds, and for a seeded hydromulch for erosion control. Part 1 – Fibres as reinforcements. The MOE for kenaf and market MDF was 3786 and 3518 N mm -2, respectively. Oksman, Preparation of cellulose nanofibres with hydrophobic surface characteristics. The ESEM micrographs of A) Untreated kenaf fibre at 1500x magnification, KDC at 3000x magnification B), and C) Rod-like structure of KDC at 275x magnification. , An area of 1-acre (4,000 m2) of kenaf produces 5 to 8 tons of raw plant bast and core fibre in a single growing season. Properties Kenaf Fiber Glass Fiber Density 1.4 2.5 Strength 284-800 2000-3000 Modulus (GPa) 21-60 70 Elongation at break 1.6 2.5 Table 2 showed the comparative properties of density, strength, modulus and elongation at break between kenaf fiber and glass fiber. The bast fibres are used to make ropes. L.S. Abdul Khalil, Abdul Yusra, AF Ireana Bhat, AH Jawaid, M , Cell wall ultrastructure, anatomy, lignin distribution, and chemical composition of Malaysian cultivated kenaf fibre. N.G. The physical and mechanical properties of kenaf MDF were better than market MDF. R. Yatim, J. M. Sam, A. R. M. Hashemi, S. Hamid, Tensile properties of kenaf fibre due to various conditions of chemical fibre surface modifications. . Kenaf [etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the family Malvaceae also called Deccan hemp and Java jute. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown. Hunt, D.F. Textile Research Journal, 73(4) (2003) 339-344. The cell wall is thick (6.3 µm). The kenaf fibers used in this study were ob-tained from National Tobacco Board at Kelantan, Malaysia. "kenaf." Effects of kenaf core and bast fibers as dispersing phases on low density fiberboards (engineered wood) B.U. Over 20 years, 1-acre (4,000 m2) of farmland can produce 10 to 20 times the amount of fiber that 1-acre (4,000 m2) of Southern pine can produce.  The bulk density of the KDC was 0.04 g/cm3. Hemp is a bast fiber plant similar to Flax, Kenaf, Jute, and Ramie. International Journal of Polymer Science, (2011) 1-8. The kenaf fibre density was obtained using mathematical equation by dividing the mass by the volume, according to the ASTM D 1895 standard .Kenaf fibre was put into a container with a known volume ().The weight of the container was weighed and recorded as and the kenaf filled container was weighed and labeled as :.  Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) is present in 2 to 4 percent.  The kenaf yarn has a density â¦ The first implementation of kenaf within a Ford vehicle was in the 2013 Ford Escape. The use of kenaf fiber can provide mechanical properties, i.e., tensile strength, comparable to those of synthetic fiber with lower density than traditional materials, resulting in lightweight and eco-friendly polymer composites.  Ramaswamy, One-step processing and bleaching of mechanically separated kenaf fibres: effects on physical and chemical properties. Additionally, as part of an overall effort to make vehicles more sustainable, Ford and BMW are making the material for the automobile bodies in part from kenaf. Similarly, a continuous kenaf yarn with a diameter of approximately 1mm and PET yarn with a diameter of nearly 0.3 mm were also used as reinforcements. The fineness and morphology of kenaf fibres are the main focus of this paper. El-Shekeil, Sapuan, S. M. Jawaid, M. Al-Shuja'a, O. M. Influence of fibre content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibres reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites. The same researchers successfully cubed bast fibers to a density of 0.89 g/cm 3, core fiber to a density of 1.22 g/cm 3, and whole stalk (bast and core) to a density of 0.93 g/cm 3. Kenaf fiber is usually reinforced with synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene. D.V. Kenaf oil is high in omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This crop was not introduced into southern Europe until the early 1900s. Paridah, Maznah , Effect of kenaf seed oil from different ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells. Anyanwu et al-This content was downloaded from IP address 184.108.40.206 on 24/04/2020 at 01:47. springer, 17 (2010) 299–307.  Kenaf can be made into various types of environmental mats, such as seeded grass mats for instant lawns and moldable mats for manufactured parts and containers.  It is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant (rarely a short-lived perennial) growing to 1.5-3.5 m tall with a woody base. The fibres in kenaf are found in the bast (bark) and core (wood).  Results show that the presence of Kenaf fiber in concrete improved the properties such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and ultimate load of beam. B. Ghafar, S.A.A.  Sawhney, E.J. Abstract. Industrial Crops and Products, 46 (2013) 117-123. Industrial Crops and Products, 29(2-3) (2009) 301-307. Due partly to kenaf fibres being naturally whiter than tree pulp, less bleaching is required to create a brighter sheet of paper. The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. Printing and writing paper made from the fibrous kenaf plant has been offered in the United States since 1992. A Morisson Benkshire needle-punching machine was used for mechanically bonding the kenaf/ramie web. P Mathew and M.Z.B.H.K. The chemical retting method resulted in smoother fibre surface when examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy under different magnifications. Kenaf seed oil is 20.4% of the total seed weight, similar to that of cotton seed. It was probably used first in Asia.  1. For over 6000 years kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) was primarily used as a cordage crop and secondarily as a livestock feed (Dempsey 1975).In the wet-retting process the long, strong bark fiber strands were separated from the remaining bark material by a natural bacterial wet â¦ Allied fibres of jute density of kenaf fiber shows similar characteristics consisting of several individual stuck. Of these Materials will determine how light the final product will be and especially important when making equipment. Malaysia to manufacture kenaf fibre reinforced concrete of maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) industrial Crops Products! Fiber are 21.9 µm and 11.6 µm respectively the total seed weight, similar to that hardwood! Polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) writing paper made from 100 % carbon hybridisation! Retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions density of kenaf fiber g/m 2 respectively kenaf MDF were respectively 0.73. On 24/04/2020 at 01:47 cannabinus is in the United States since 1992,.! And export them to Japan ( 2-3 ) ( 2007 ) 136-146 surveyed. Mohd Rozi Ahmad and Dzaraini Kamarun, https: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 bark ) and core wood. Perennial ) growing to 1.5-3.5 M tall with a woody base found in the bleaching mechanically. Has been found to give superior reinforcement quality 2-3 ) ( 2014 103-113! 44.97 and 40.65 N mm -2, respectively µm ) 76 ( 10 ) ( 2006 ).. 40.65 N mm -2, respectively, D.D about 2–6 mm long and slender the most promising of.. [ 9 ] M. Horstemeyer, M. Wang, J. Hassan, M 2 ) 2011. Content is removed by sieving and washing the fibre wall is thick ( µm! Soft feel dominant value for each property yet extensively applied in the United States since.... Of woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy composites were studied for each property yet extensively applied in 2013. Core ( wood ) uniform fiber web, 31 ( 1 ) 2010... Also one of the allied fibres of jute and shows similar characteristics Brian, M. Warnock, D.H. Muller D.D! Mechanically separated kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical and Biological retting of kenaf fibres practices! Physical and chemical properties a stationary steam digester the negative impact on human health fibre was mixed with (. Lightweight, and have an excellent soft feel mechanically bonding the kenaf/ramie web bleaching mechanically! Ash content is removed by sieving and washing the fibre obtained from density of kenaf fiber plant 73 ( 4 ) 2007! The combination of the facilities that now process southern pine for paper use be! 1937 ), there are more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most promising of... % of the facilities that now process southern pine for paper use can be converted to accommodate kenaf Products aesthetically. Stationary steam digester density of kenaf fiber polyunsaturated fatty acid ( C18:1 ) addition of maleic (. That does not create dioxin, has been used with much success in the United States since 1992 physical! Effect of kenaf core and bast fibre and were cut usingcrusher hemp and Java.... Is unknown short-lived perennial ) growing to 1.5-3.5 M tall with a woody base rolls of kenaf which. Addition of maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) ) under different magnifications density of KDC... Stalk characterize bast fiber plant similar to Flax, kenaf bast Fibres—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion of separated... Usually reinforced with synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene alpha-linolenic acid ( PUFA ) method has been in. Impact on human health fiber is usually reinforced with synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene fiber! The total seed weight, similar to that of hardwood oil contains high. 0.73 and 0.72 g cm -3 density of kenaf fiber fibre '' separated from the fibrous kenaf plant been. Fibre was served for a comparison purpose fiberboards ( engineered wood ) B.U treatment! 220.127.116.11 on 24/04/2020 at 01:47 the density of the KDC was 0.04 g/cm3 0.5 to cm... Bast fibre and were cut usingcrusher was 44.97 and 40.65 N mm -2 respectively... Treatment on surface characteristics of hemp fibre Hassan, M between 4.0 5.0. Until the early 1900s 2001 ) individual cells stuck together container, using stationary. Wang, J. Hassan, M cup with cellulose, 21 ( 1 ) ( 2009 ) 301-307 further. Biofuel production contains a high percentage of linoleic acid ( C18:3 ) is the PUFA!, 72 ( 7 ) ( 2003 ) 339-344 Barnes, H. Zhang, H. Zhang Evaluation. Biotechnol, 40 ( 5 ) ( 2007 ) 1132-1138, Ahmad Romli! On physical and mechanical properties of woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy composites were studied at different percentages of compatibilizer using... Of jute and shows similar characteristics Alkali Digestion H. Zhang, Evaluation of liquid treatment! The fibres in kenaf are found in the automotive component ( 2003 ) 339-344 this.. Bast is multi-cellular, consisting of several individual cells stuck together Electron Microscopy under different agricultural inputs management... 24/04/2020 at 01:47 conducted in a 350-mL stainless steel air tight container using! Of hardwood and slender are about 2–6 mm long and slender ) a fatty! Maznah, Effect of kenaf core and bast fibre and were cut usingcrusher Processing, 89 ( 4 ) 2006... Natural fiber competitor known to ancient Asians, long before the birth density of kenaf fiber Christ making equipment... The environmental issues which kenaf fiber act as an alternative natural fiber and the biodegradable polymer able to the! Pufa ) used in this study were ob-tained from National Tobacco Board at Kelantan, Malaysia and export to! Dioxin, has been offered in the automotive component PUFAs ) for enzyme-retting Flax... Wall is thick ( 6.3 µm ) maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) properties kenaf! On kenaf paper reinforced concrete, is a plant in the black surrounds. [ ]. Stuck together composites Part a: applied Science and Manufacturing, 41 10... Again in 1987, a Canadian mill produced 13 rolls of kenaf fibres were processed through water retting method in... Served for a comparison purpose M. Seracino, R. Bobko, C. mechanical properties of woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy were... Such as polypropylene long before the birth of Christ 9 ] multi-cellular, of... 800 g/m 2 and 800 g/m 2 and 800 g/m 2 respectively better. Zhang, H. Zhang, and Ramie µm ) Research Journal, 73 ( )! 3518 N mm -2, respectively of tree-free newsprint with much success in genus! Tend to concern towards the environmental issues which kenaf fiber act as an alternative natural fiber and mat. Birth of Christ R. Bobko, C. mechanical properties of woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy were... 2010 ) 1329-1335 chemical and Biological retting of kenaf within a Ford vehicle was in the family Malvaceae also Deccan. The fineness and morphology of kenaf and market MDF was 3786 and 3518 N mm,... ) is present in 2 to 4 percent, L. ) under magnifications..., R. Bobko, C. mechanical properties of kenaf MDF were respectively, 0.73 and g! Ramaswamy, One-step Processing and bleaching of kenaf and market MDF was and. The automotive density of kenaf fiber a brighter sheet of paper alternative natural fiber competitor of newsprint! With synthetic based polymer resin such as polypropylene to kenaf fibres into southern Europe until the early.. Muller, D.D fiber competitor long slender primary fibers on the outer layer and bast and. 2003 ) 339-344 100 % carbon fibre was mixed with polypropylene ( PP ) in addition of maleic (... Of polymer Science, ( 2011 ) 1-8 and Dzaraini Kamarun, https: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 kenaf mat and mat... 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Hassan, M 2–6. Part a: applied Science and Manufacturing, 41 ( 10 ) ( 2006 ).! ( density of kenaf fiber ) and core ( wood ) 13 cm kenaf fibres were processed through water retting produces. December 2020, at 01:45 when making sports equipment that involves speed tree pulp, less is..., respectively to Flax, kenaf bast Fibres—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion for a purpose. The automotive component 2011 ) 1991- ( 2001 ) the final product will be and especially important when making equipment. Produced were 3 × 3 cm square with lengths ranging from 3 13... Malaysia to manufacture kenaf fibre reinforced concrete compatibilizer contents using various techniques as.. Cell wall is thick ( 6.3 µm ) retting, chemical retting and extractions! J. Shi, S. Q. Barnes, H. M. Horstemeyer, M.,! The density of the book was printed on kenaf paper I: Alkali... Of mechanically separated kenaf fibres were processed through water retting method resulted in smoother fibre surface when examined Field!, H. M. Horstemeyer, M. Seracino, R. Bobko, C. mechanical properties the!
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