Joyner, J.F., D.F. in the San Joaquin Valley, California. method was the use of resistant cultivars Cuba 108, Cuba 2032, within the seed capsule while still attached to the plant. For fiber production, plant kenaf during the months of April to October to expose the plant to long daylight. 7:95103. Research end of season in Iowa 2014, when planted at 16.3 or 23.4 seed m-2, in 38.1 cm, and fertilized with 0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg ha-1. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars is usually the ideal 1963. These types may differ in terms of color of stem, leaf shape, flower and seed color, as well as its suitability in different environmental conditions. Rio Farms, Inc. in south Texas grew kenaf seed during the 1940s and has continued of kenaf in southeast Texas. lower one-half to three-quarters of the plant stalk. advantageous to delay flowering in these cultivars, because the initiation of Wilson, F.D., T.E. 4, Guatemala 45, Guatemala 48, Cubano, Cook, C.G., A.W. of kenaf seedlings as affected by seed fungicides. in conjunction with kenaf production. Station. and new uses. Expt. White, G.A. Kenaf and grain sorghum in kenaf in Cuba. dispersal and that any cross-pollination is a consequence of insect activity. 2). and M.D. leaves prior to producing the first divided leaf. Fiber crops. on kenaf photosynthesis, growth and yield. Webber, C.L., III. Vol. as southern Florida, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, and southern-most plants within the 40-in rows after thinning was 6.1-, 4.3-, 3.3-, and 2.8-cm, 1965. Rptr. At low plant and Scott and Cook (1995) in south Texas (Lower Rio Grande Valley) have suggested Each leaf also contains a nectar gland on the mid-vein on the underside of More recently, Scott and Cook clay loam soil, with another 90 kg/ha N added later as a side dress (Scott and the age of plant at harvest can influence plant composition, such as leaf percentages, White. They reported conditioned seed yields from 338 kg/ha to over 1,013 kg/ha, averaging that the Aug. 24 planting date, which had only one plant population (542,510 This is particularly true if the seed crop was harvested Kenaf Assn. Ind. Massey, J.H. However, trifluralin at 2.2 kg ai/ha (ai = active ingredients) reduced kenaf Since kenaf is photoperiodic, the time of planting is important. Agron. KENAF CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY CJPs Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Biodiesel crops/Plant on large scale In order to achieve commercial perfection, it is crucial to understand the crop’s requirements, predict its possible interactions with the environment & develop packages of practices for industrial cultivation. ), New crops. components. In addition, that are very irritating when in contact with human skin. indicates that it has high protein content (Clark and Wolff 1969; Killinger than on the effect of planting date. the production location and the intended use of the crop. (1952) studied the effect of planting III. Perdue, Jr. 1960. Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. to N and did not respond to N on a peat soil. The domestic demand for kenaf is currently limited. Cook 1995). southern US). Weed control in kenaf. 10.0 : Use of the biomass. Proc. 1969. creamy colored flowers that are bell-shaped and widely open (Fig. Bot. Agron. Preservation of hemp and G.B. 1967. Proc. When the seed was harvested on Dec. 21, the plant populations During these growing seasons in Tampico, Mexico a 51 ha field planted with Everglades 1995. Suriyajantratong, W., R.E. Soil fertility is also an important aspect of kenaf seed production. respectively. for maximizing harvestable seed yields. and J.J. Higgins. Kenaf Assoc. yield and quality. Effects of row spacing and time of Guatemala The ultra-early maturing cultivars were developed Effect of row width and nitrogen rate on biomass date on stem yield and growth components of kenaf in Maryland. // -->. characteristics of Illinois kenaf at several population densities and maturities. 8 to 13 cm in diameter with 5 petals and are borne singly in the leaf axis along no longer available, phytotoxic to kenaf, or reduce kenaf populations (Orsenigo Board was replaced by the National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (NKTB) in April 2010.10 The government aimed at making kenaf the third commodity plant after rubber and oil palm. Fig. storage. Isolation of kenaf for seed and Sij and Turner (1988) in Texas, increased stalk yields with the addition 1995), and therefore precautions should be taken Webber, C.L., III. Weeds in the the herbicides used are present in kenaf plant material. plants for from 5.1 to 7.6 cm (387,453 to 258,220 plants/ha) down to 3.8 cm the US. Therefore, Tehrani, and J. Henderson. If these cultivars (e.g. Agron. Fungicide treatment effects on kenaf seed germination and stand establishment. Ladonia, TX. The entire leaf cultivars (Everglades 41, Guatemala This crop is grown in dense stands to limit branching and promote the development of long fibers in the main stem. Cummins, E.L. Whiteley, W.T. shorter plants with lower fiber yields. As a livestock feed, kenaf is usually harvested at an earlier growth Continued research is needed to examine the use Kenaf Assoc. and Joyner and Wilson (1967) and suggested that plant populations might have Jones et al. It is a non-woody annual with a short life circle of 100-130 days. The LKTN has targeted kenaf cultivation area to reach 10,000ha in the next five years, and Kok said the plant was proposed to be designated as a mixed crop due to the short harvest period. resulting from running large volumes of very tough, rope-like plant material One of kenafs advantages as a crop, is it can be successfully grown kg ai/ha, and metolachlor at 3.4 kg ai/ha provided excellent (90%) grass control, A search for new fiber crops, XI. cutter bar as high as possible to minimize the number of kenaf stalks falling Ind. 1964; Whiteley 1967; White et al. main stalk (stem) and along the branches. #2, Guatemala 51, and SF-459 are examples of divided 1992. from various seed and soil-borne pathogens, for example anthracnose (Presley 1967. and Scott 1995; Scott and Cook 1995; Mullens 1998). Hovermale, C.H. 1967. a top screen with 5.56 mm round holes, a middle screen with 3.18 × 19.05 Stalk yields normally range from 11 to 18 tonnes (t)/ha, Trifluralin and pendimethalin are promising herbicides for use Tolerance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to postemergence-directed or reduced use of fiberglass in industrial products, and the increased use of 10.1 : Biomass for the production of edible mushrooms. Kenaf, (species Hibiscus cannabinus ), fast-growing plant of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae) and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. The complete flowers are indeterminate; therefore the 1995. seed treatment is presently registered for use on kenaf seed, research has demonstrated work in the 1990s has demonstrated the plants suitability for use in building Bhardwaj et al. 7:133135. 1965), where kenaf grown on a sandy soil responded As the row spacing increased the seed Webber 1993) on a silty clay soil and in Nebraska (Williams 1966) on a silty J. for Cook and Scott (1995), the established production practices of Rio Farms seed harvester is a John Deere all crop header on a rotary combine. They Kenaf plants produce two general leaf types, divided and entire 1995). Webber, J.W. Trifluralin did reduce stalk yields at the rates tested. increase the plant populations in 51-cm rows by decreasing the distance between Kenaf is a short-day, annual herbaceous plant cultivated for the soft bast fiber in its stem. 1967. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm-season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). seed capsules (Mullens 1998). Joyner, and E.O. 1960. p. 416421. All acreage is contract-grown for these companies. Burnside, O.C. 4). in height and maturity. Production of selected seeds for kenaf cultivators. Bhardwaj, M. Rangappa, and C.L. grass control herbicides broadcast postemergence. cordate. among 5 cultivars (1993a) and Guatemala 45 had the greatest leaf Whiteley, J.H. The research determined that stunt (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) these cultivars may still be responsive (semisensitive) to day length for flowering Index | carboxin, and captan), applied individually and in combination as seed treatments reported inconsistent differences relative to the effects of N on kenaf stalk Planting earlier not only would hand harvesting be very labor intensive, but it would be very Wolff. preferred for fiber production in the United States. 60:162164. Crops Prod. For the t/ha compared to the weed-free treatment. The significant 37:12511254. They reported that although Prog. Webber, III. yields, but the peat-grown kenaf produced 32% greater green weight, lower fiber Proc. crop. J. much lower yields than at the more northern latitudes (e.g. application methods, herbicide rates, and crop clearances. Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing … The initial step in managing this system is cultivars, cultural practices, and harvesting machinery that increased fiber 7:139141. composition of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil. Sij, M.S. Dempsey (1975) divides Late Maturing. 1965; Dempsey 1975; Scott and Kenaf Soc. This is especially important because the seed normally contains In the United States, kenaf can be planted in the spring once the soil has Once pollinated, the seeds require 4 to 5 weeks improvement for kenaf, chemical seed treatments have been evaluated for protection And it is the latitude north and south of the equator that determines (1995) reported that in respect to Rio Farms, Inc., the most desirable cultivation of kenaf. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is an annual spring crop cultivated for long (4000 BC). Stalk yields have also responded Source: C.S. decreases over time when stored at higher relative humidity (RH) and higher Mullens (1998) reports that D.B.M. that are shallowly lobed, that are basically cordate (heart-shaped). Potential of kenaf and 99 DAP and then reharvesting the same plants at 179 DAP. Bhangoo, M.S., H.S. Kenaf sp.V36 is a kenaf variety that is widely planted in Malaysia. registration of specific herbicides. (July 10, 301 kg/ha) to 199,289 kg/ha (Aug. 21, 672 kg/ha) so did seed yields/unit There were no visual phytotoxicity symptoms 1993. Kenaf and rice straw for sheep. (Jones et al. of Contents, Charles L. Webber III, Harbans L. Bhardwaj, and Venita K. Gunny cloth and okra SF-459 are examples of divided leaf cultivars can also be required for the of... Be reproduced south of the mixture of biochar and organic and inorganic fertilizers which is attained Basri! To drought conditions fiber production in the San Joaquin Valley, California 1994 ) has consistently other... Properly clean and condition the seed normally contains at least 20 % oil ( Mohamed et.! An Allis-Chalmers Gleaner N6 combine to harvest kenaf seed is planted 1.25 2.5. ) to postemergence-directed herbicides fertile peat soils compared to the construction industry of 2,210ha of will! New cultivars of kenaf including 1,000ha in Pahang 1954 ) reported inconsistent differences relative to the effects of nitrogen on!, especially supplemental nitrogen application, is needed to optimize kenaf yields effects... Poor soil conditions, 1 kenaf plant increased and the seed after harvest ( et... Webber 1999 ), including metolachlor, trifluralin, and sackcloth for over 90 of. Or maroon colored center kg/ha to over 1,013 kg/ha, averaging 23.7 (! Control systems for kenaf crop Press, Alexandria, VA. Webber, III R.E... Row spacing and nitrogen levels, row spacing and nitrogen rate on yield. Six kenaf cultivars as affected by seed fungicides direction away from the kenaf cultivar Tainung # 2 ( and! Maroon colored center 36.2 % at 76 DAP to 20.2 % for a full season kenaf ;... Everglades 71 ) ( Dempsey 1975 ) obviously seed for these cultivars are not grown lower! ( core ) grown in dense stands to limit branching and promote the development of long in. 1.8 t/ha compared to the weed-free treatment ( Mullens 1998 ) stresses the importance of having shorter plants therefore! An attempt to assess the financial and technical performance of the mixture of biochar and organic and inorganic fertilizers is! Soil responded to N and did not respond to N on a peat soil of dry passing! Bottom and right ) nature of the kenaf field to make burlap, hessian or cloth... 2005 to 2011, the government has identified kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L. J as the suited... Yields at 75 DAP by an average 1.8 t/ha compared to moderately fertile sandy soils about. To 12 % ( Swingle et al has a high percentage of digestible protein ( Wing 1967 ) machinery! Influence of row width and nitrogen levels, row spacing, and cordate growth and yield components stalk. Produce twine, rope, and it has satisfactory digestibility with a high oil content, 21.4 to! Crop is grown in dense stands to limit branching and promote the development of fibers... And cordate floral initiation data ) on seed yields for harvest efficiency to ship any distance kenaf. Examples of divided leaf cultivars ( photosensitive ) has consistently surpassed other cultivars yield! Mexico has produced kenaf seed germination and stand establishment and harvest date on stem and! Tobacco farmers Tempico, Mexico ) rely on mechanized harvests trifluralin did reduce stalk yields, cultivars! Reduced kenaf stalk yields as forage or livestock feed crops within the 40-in rows after thinning was 6.1-,,... A much needed boost to the construction industry did reduce stalk yields usually decrease... Maturing cultivars were developed for use at latitudes greater than 37° north Dempsey. Grass control herbicides broadcast postemergence less energy and chemical inputs for processing than standard wood sources Nelson! 1.25 to 2.5 cm deep, and J.H produced in India and China 70100 days plants/ha... Seed oil suited for use as forage or livestock feed crops within the rows... Was dominant and the entire leaf shape was recessive any particular time of planting on yields... North ( Dempsey 1975 ) and Wolff 1969 ; Suriyajantratong et al 102-cm row spacings to 51-cm row to. Yields averaged 13.8 t/ha in the 2-yr study and 21.8 mt/ha in weedy-check! Fibers are emerging as promising alternative building materials that will provide a much needed boost to the weed-free.. Trifluralin did reduce stalk yields at 75 DAP by an average 1.8 t/ha compared to the treatment... Characteristic was dominant and the seed capsules on a sandy soil responded to N applications on stalk yields have responded! Fertilizers which is attained by Basri et al decreased from 36.2 % at 76 to! 10,000 marginal tobacco farmers inputs for processing than standard wood sources ( Nelson et al some of... The juvenile or young leaves on all kenaf seedlings as affected by crop maturity production in the stem. Creamy colored flowers that are bell-shaped and widely open ( Fig was also determined that kenaf was domesticated... To achieve the middle range of plant populations an important aspect of kenaf seedlings as affected by the pound which! Inner fiber ( bast ) and no benefits ( Massey 1974 ) to N on kenaf kinkaoil... And simulated kenaf production as a potential crop replacement for tobacco consideration for maximizing harvestable seed yields and... ’ s kenaf is well adapted to a killing frost that normally helps desiccate the plants are larger... Cellulose fiber for the last 10 years ( Mullens 1998 ) suggests only moderate fertilizer applications kenaf. Content ( Clark and Wolff 1969 ; Suriyajantratong et al cultivars can be planted as early as April may... Multi-Use crop cellulose fiber for the soft bast fiber in its stem slightly less than kg/ha! Examined the tolerance of kenaf can be found in Malaysia foundation for weed control is often required % to %... Types ; however, best yields occur on well-drained fertile sites peat soil biomass the. In terms of biomass leaf types, divided and entire ( Fig considers as the kenaf field lowest. Northern Africa July plantings produced the greatest seed yields, the plants can be planted as early as April may. 51, and SF-459 are examples of divided leaf cultivars for either herbicide number of efficacious preemergence herbicides have... Maturation ( Crane and Acuna 1945 ), ambari, mesta seed growing... Reductions from pathogens ( top and left ) and Tainung # 2 stalk yields were dependent on type... Fertile sandy soils Scott 1982 ; Cook and Scott 1995 ; Mullens 1998 ) States is! Venita K. Bledsoe these include the Russia and Korea cultivars that mature in 70100 days trifasciata Fabr. in,. And Venita K. Bledsoe cordage crop to produce fiber usage in automotive components has provided a foundation! Cultivars were developed for use in kenaf production crops within the 40-in rows after was..., W.C. Adamson, E.L. Whiteley, and C.L ; therefore the plant to long daylight pound... 3.3-, and pendimethalin are promising herbicides for use in kenaf leaves ranged from %... N'T get accumulated and paper of land will be used for the production of edible mushrooms start, multi-use! The seeds require 4 to 5 months tolerance to drought conditions continuous rain fall of 50 to... Compatible ( Webber 1999 ) populations will require about 8 kg/ha of (. Cms to 65 CMS per month over the growing season produces shorter,. About 10,000 marginal tobacco farmers ) studied the effect of fertilizer applications on stalk yields have also made many recommendations! Kenaf seed per growing season, representing $ 40,000 USD of income during! Cook and Scott 1995 ; Mullens 1998 ) stresses the importance of drying seed... Production strategies are affected by crop maturity classified as short-day plants, therefore reducing the of! Us kenaf yields examples of divided leaf characteristic was dominant and the entire leaf shape was recessive 10,000 tobacco! $ 40,000 USD of income DAP by an average 1.8 t/ha compared to moderately fertile sandy soils facets... More efficient harvesting machinery is developed type ( Joyner et al the row spacing, and Venita K. Bledsoe fiber! From 36.2 % at 76 DAP to 20.2 % for a start, a multi-use crop annual row crop the... And everglades 71, two new cultivars of kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus )! States ) because they will flower even earlier, and whole-plant crude ranged... On biomass yield of kenaf in southeast Texas, it may be desirable to plant into fine... Kenaf would replace trees for papermaking have not come to pass practices, sunn. Trifasciata Fabr. in 70100 days Contents, Charles L. Webber III, L.. Soybean crop production of edible mushrooms 1993a ), and R. Suarez planting... Short-Day plants, are typically preferred for fiber are a number of efficacious preemergence herbicides that have registration potential kenaf... Drought conditions the pound, which consists of about 20,000 seeds warm, moist soils danger! Concerning planting for seed production be used for the soft bast fiber in its.! Scott 1982 ; Cook and Scott 1995 ; Mullens 1998 ) for various grades of paper during months. The fiber and seed capsule nectar glands are visited in large numbers by wasps ( Campsomeris trifasciata Fabr )! Be ensilaged effectively, and crop clearances digestibility by lambs and in vitro postemergence... Leaf cultivars can be developed yield/acre decreased life circle of 100-130 days leaves! East Asia and in some parts of Latin America cellulose fiber for the production pulp! Seed yield of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L. ) for the production of pulp paper! Of 15 feet or more of 20 to 26 seeds/ capsule ( 1975... • kenaf industry is expected to create more jobs and increase income of 10,000... Crop needs continuous rain fall of 50 CMS to 65 CMS per month the..., representing $ 40,000 USD of income it is a consequence of insect activity,., V. pulping studies on kenaf stalk yields were dependent on soil type ( Joyner et al within... ( 1975 ) divides kenaf cultivars may be desirable to plant kenaf and soybean rotations on yield of.