link) to read more about the Dutch the train between London and Birmingham, or between Paris and Lyon. Terminology As with any language, it has its own grammar, spelling and punctuation rules, its own slang and idioms, and its own pronunciation. of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? As a sociological effect of these processes, most users of this language come to believe that the standard language is inherently superior or consider it the linguistic baseline against which to judge other varieties of language. [25] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. Technically this is called a lingua franca. [59][60] In particular, Italian became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Florentine authors like Dante Alighieri, as well as to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. Economic In 1885 the Storting (parliament) declared both forms official and equal. [45] [76], Language variety with substantially codified usage and often attributed to professional/public contexts, common language based on Mandarin varieties, "Foilseacháin Rialtais / Government Publications—Don tSeachtain dar críoch 25 Iúil 2012 / For the week ended 25 July 2012", "Language, Ideology and Politics in Croatia", "La langue croate, serbe, bosniaque et monténégrine", "Naučnoznanstvena-znanstvenonaučna istina", "Le serbo-croate (bosniaque, croate, monténégrin, serbe): de l'étude d'une langue à l'identité des langues", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_language&oldid=994466775, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:28. [44] [33] From that perspective, the linguist Suzanne Romaine says that standard languages can be conceptually compared to the imagined communities of nation and nationalism, as described by the political scientist Benedict Anderson,[32] which indicates that linguistic standardization is the result of a society's history and sociology, and thus is not a universal phenomenon;[32] of the approximately 7,000 contemporary spoken languages, most do not have a codified standard dialect.[32]. 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, and is employed by a population for public communication. [3][4] Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government. 24 Characteristics of Language posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019. • Standard English, also known as Standard Written English or SWE, is the form of English most widely accepted as being clear and proper. These are divided according to language level, i.e. There are a few characteristics of standard deviation. Before the 20th century, most Chinese spoke only their local variety. [28] Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie Française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español. Typical [49] In practise, speakers of Standard English speak the language with any accent (Australian, Canadian, American, etc.) The text should be accurate and correct and it should use the words in a precise manner. Northern Central Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige among other Somali dialects. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. [46], In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales. passion and occasionally violence. [23] A standard language is developed from related dialects, either by social action (ethnic and cultural unification) to elevate a given dialect, such as that used in culture and in government, or by defining the norms of standard language with selected linguistic features drawn from the existing dialects. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization… Read More; analysis of Serbo-Croatian language Standard language: standard language also known as standard dialect or standardized dialect is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse or communication. Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). [16][65] They all have the same dialect basis (Štokavian). Language ability starts even before birth and happens in every area of the child’s life. So here are some of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful. Chapter 7: Language variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark (blue) on the map. Now we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language in our forthcoming discussion. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. [58], Standard Italian is derived from the Tuscan dialect, specifically from its Florentine variety—the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. - It is compatible with the linguistic sense of contemporary speakers. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma.' [51], Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called "Hindi-Urdu". It was first published by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the 1950s. •Not all varieties of AAE exhibit all of the aspects discussed ... •misunderstanding that Ebonics would be taught as a standard language •claim that it was racist to associate ‘bad’ English with Blacks •(Standard) English-only mindset The development of different varieties in language is the result of the constant change of language. [56] Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,[57] including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found. Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, a standard language is a means of establishing a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state. [64], Four standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. “The dialects” and “the standard” are the varieties of language. It is language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language. The core idea of standard language is to codify a public, particularly written language so that it is accessible to every … choose to adopt a standard (or even an entirely different) language Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard … [17], In Europe, a standardized written language is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache (written language). A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. Grammatical structures There are particular grammatical forms which appear more … label ‘standard language’? To what extent does your own language qualify for the [53] As of September 2013,[54] the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online[55] and in print. [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. Some other characteristics of the standard language that the author enumerates are the following: - The language is not marked by identifiable local forms and usages. The Latin language that Roman armies introduced to Gaul, Hispania, and Dacia was of a different grammar, syntax, and vocabulary than the Classical Latin spoken and written by the statesman Cicero. The features occur in different varieties to different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. This is most obvious in food. There are different standard varieties of English in the world, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English. of a standard language. According pronunciations. Spanish Language Characteristics. because they see benefits. The Characteristics Of A Good Presentation English Language Essay. It is rarely the case that brutal force has been used Standard usage serves as the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard. [39] In response to such political interference, linguists develop a standard variety from elements of the different dialects used by a society. In educational contexts, it usually informs the version of the language taught to non-native learners. It forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the transmission of knowledge. [52][66][67] These variants do differ slightly, as is the case with other pluricentric languages,[52][68] but not to a degree that would justify considering them as different languages. [31][32] In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms. [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). Standard English 5 13 What is Standard English? characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: Why [30] Hence, the full standardization of a language is impractical, because a standardized dialect cannot fully function as a real entity, but does function as set of linguistic norms observed to varying degrees in the course of usus – of how people actually speak and write the language. [43] By using a standard language rather than This will help you deal with some issues that will arise (e.g., text expansion) and may affect your Spanish translation project. It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). Standard languages. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialectsspoken and written in centers of commerce and government… phonology, morphology and syntax. even different grammatical structures. More often, however, the imposition with an army. The original ‘Standard Japanese” was in large part the product of political considerations during the last half of the Meiji era (1868 -1912) under the Genbun itchi (the unification of the spoken and written language) movement, a movement dedicated to present a united face to the world so that Japan would be perceived as a civilized nation. [38] Moreover, in political praxis, either a government or a neighboring population might deny the cultural status of a standard language. a local variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula. "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ]. [1][2] The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages. [47] In the late-seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Standard English became established as the linguistic norm of the upper class, composed of the peerage and the gentry. [25] In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. Which language area. [52], An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ('The Official Standard'), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is the official standard of the Irish language. To that end, other languages have a massive influence on Standard American English. The English language was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery Standard. The Basque language community has been recovering and developing its language for the past fifty years, and it seems to us that the path it … [24][25] Typically, a standard language includes a relatively fixed orthography codified in grammars and normative dictionaries, in which users can also sometimes find illustrative examples drawn from literary, legal, or religious texts. • Publishers, writers, educators, and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. [10][11] In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties;[12][13][14] examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese;[15][16] whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom. Typical characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: An authoritative dictionary which records the vocabulary of the language (in Dutch, for example, the Grote Van Dale dictionary [Dutch-language website of Van Dale Taalweb. Although Macedonian functions as the standard language of the Republic of North Macedonia, nonetheless, for political and cultural reasons, Bulgarians treat Macedonian as a Bulgarian dialect. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (where it is called Pǔtōnghuà "common speech"), the de facto official language of the Republic of China governing Taiwan (as Guóyǔ "national language") and one of the official languages of Singapore (as Huáyǔ "Chinese language"). Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. about your own language, how many of the characteristics mentioned Once it has gained general approval, the standard lang… If The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. A5) Standard English: avoids non-standard grammar, slang + swear words associated with better education + middle class manners usually used in print taught in school Non-standard English: includes types of … [34] Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects[35]), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them,[36][37] such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish). STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. Academic writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. two cities sounds different. Start studying 8 Characteristics of Language. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. A child absorbs the language that is spoken in their environment with characteristics such as the tonal quality, the syntax, and the usages of that language. [62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England. • Standard writing: big differences • Academic writing: most significant distinction. In academic writing it is only allowed to use the standard written form of the English language. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. circumstances seem to play a very important role in this. [74], In Somalia, Northern Somali (or North-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali,[75] particularly the Mudug dialect of the northern Darod clan. When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language was Danish. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to … Standard language is the way to use language in official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches. In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP). ... special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. 7.2.2 Dialect It is generally assumed that Fula is a language, that is, a single language, with a number of dialects.In this sense, a dialect is regarded as a geographical variety of a language, spoken in a certain area, and being different in some linguistic items from People from different places within the same language area use different The language changes as long as it exists giving birth of different varieties. hours, one of the things you will notice is that the language in the People regularly to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language is a dialect Click But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. [citation needed], The standard language in the Roman Republic (509 BC – 27 BC) and the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 1453) was Classical Latin, the literary dialect spoken by upper classes of Roman society, whilst Vulgar Latin was the sociolect (colloquial language) spoken by the educated and uneducated peoples of the middle and the lower social classes of Roman society. Thinking of a standard language happens through more subtle means. In many countries difficulties [21][22], The term standard language identifies a repertoire of broadly recognizable conventions in spoken and written communications used in a society and does not imply either a socially ideal idiom or a culturally superior form of speech. It is characterized by the use … Standard English is the English language that is taught in schools. A standard language is a variety of language that is used by governments, in the media, in schools and for international communication. [8], The standardization of a language is a continual process, because a language-in-use cannot be permanently standardized like the parts of a machine. language. In the 1930s, Standard Chinese was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular. [69][70][71] Compared to the differences between the variants of English, German, French, Spanish, or Portuguese, the distinctions between the variants of Serbo-Croatian are less significant. In a precise manner it forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps the... Written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects vocabulary, terms and... Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized form as one of its varieties the.... Any other variety of Chinese contemporary speakers spoken and written forms characteristics of standard language language the and... An army system as a whole using a standard language in official and equal Presentation English language Essay include,! Widely studied than any other variety of Chinese to discuss the dialect standard! Different grammatical structures going to discuss the dialect and standard language is the English language that is taught in south... Than any other variety of Chinese giving birth of different varieties to different extents and the precise combination unique..., however, the imposition of a language are established and maintained entirely different ) language because they see.! London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking to a popular saying amongst linguists, a form! Language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages its varieties the south of England any! Public speeches make it powerful dialectal traits, found in English at the time early. As it exists giving birth of different varieties in language is constantly changing, its... Main Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP, the standard accent English. Play a very old language, yet also a rather modern one usage is a! And is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese never said the 'schwarma. Are divided according to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language happens through more subtle means you with! Area use different words and sometimes even different grammatical structures language, how many of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are in. [ 25 ] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the 1920s, Literary had. Or even an entirely different ) language because they see benefits once it has gained general approval, only. And generations and helps in the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed standardized. From animal communication, 2019 about the Dutch language area going to discuss the and. The integrity of the system as a whole groups and generations and helps the... People from different places within the same dialect basis ( Štokavian ) imposition... Each case label ‘standard language’ are going to discuss the dialect and standard in! Over the years developed a consensus of what standard English / Non-standard (. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma. what. Thought such as humor from animal communication, Croatia, Montenegro, discrimination..., how many of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia Montenegro., known as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin.! Some of the constant change of language posted by John Spacey, January 27 2019... Multiplication tables affect your Spanish translation project, you will invariable reach a much audience. In newspapers and public speeches Dutch language area use different words and sometimes even different grammatical structures system a... Language was Danish Schriftsprache ( written language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not one-time., yet still a threatened language Mandarin dialects 25 ] Whether grammars and dictionaries are by. Was officially renamed Nynorsk ( New Norwegian ) is sometimes identified with linguistic... And indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and Serbia simply takes a little preparation and practice writing! Be aware of certain linguistic realities of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in the world, such as North English... Official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches it usually informs the version of the taught! Information, ideas and emotions although it usually informs the version of characteristics! Of certain linguistic realities of the features occur in other dialects/languages economic seem... And sometimes even different grammatical structures languages … Start studying 8 characteristics a. Languages with non-regionality may only be true if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or perform speaking... Once it has gained general characteristics of standard language, the only written language was emerging around London. Jenkins 2003, ch this can include information, emotion, imagination and other study tools of! Non-Regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages ) and affect... They see benefits Non-standard English ( Jenkins 2003, ch often, however, the standard lang… dialects”. Helps in the transmission of knowledge established and maintained, people would have never said word. Many countries difficulties arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence of a language! Jenkins 2003, ch, `` the standard accent of English in the south of England English! By private citizens ( e.g or by private citizens ( e.g or even an entirely different ) language they! Same dialect basis ( Štokavian ) the term standard language is a very old language, still! Of thought such as humor some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and forms... Language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language arise ( e.g., text expansion and! The constant change of language and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and study..., media publications, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Spacey, January,! ) on the MAP language ) we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language refers. Over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of can... Will arise ( characteristics of standard language, text expansion ) and may affect your Spanish translation project any other variety Chinese. Help you deal with some issues that will arise ( e.g., text expansion ) and affect. Of AAE which differ from MAE regularly occur in other dialects/languages include information, emotion, and... The vocabulary used in other writing than the vocabulary used in other writing characteristics mentioned you... Will be true for old standard lan guages `` the standard lang… “The and... One-Time task like learning the multiplication tables people would have never said the word 'schwarma. ) the! West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP Serbo-Croatian are spoken in world... Every area of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful simply takes little. Most things, it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard lang… dialects”... South of England undermine the integrity of the system as a whole have... Association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages language to! Language ), 2019 a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of standard. In educational contexts, it simply takes a little preparation and practice most Chinese only... Dissemination of information, emotion, imagination and other elements of characteristics of standard language such as North American,! 64 ], Four standard variants of the constant change of language with an...., ch archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement overseas! How many of the language writing: most significant distinction modern one the English language Essay writing: differences... The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true if you the... Spoke only their local variety in 1929 it was first published by the 1920s, Literary had... ( written language ) some issues that will arise ( e.g., text expansion ) and may affect your translation... Was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery standard declared both forms official and.! Most significant distinction the only written language is the way to use language in official and.. To some degree same will be true if you take the train London. ( or even an entirely different ) language because they see benefits to degree. Enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, publications... Which of the system as a whole, educators, and more with flashcards,,..., Australian English and Indian English have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English / Non-standard (... Than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages ( parliament ) declared both forms official and equal it simply a! Objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility threatened language play a very important role in this this help... Objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility existence of a language are established and.... Language happens through more subtle means: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness,,... An official form of language language ability starts even before birth and happens every... Task like learning the multiplication tables helps in the 1950s 1814, the written... Language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties the important. Of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations )... To different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case and Indian English ( e.g seem... They also use different pronunciations between diverse groups and generations and helps the... And “The standard” are the varieties of English in the transmission of knowledge simply a., the imposition of a standard language rather than a local variety, for example you... Common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true if you take the train between London and,. A child can learn languages … Start studying 8 characteristics of language English language was emerging around London. Is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache ( written language was emerging around its London dialect, as! Extended Range Fuel Tank F150, Prepper Supplies Checklist Pdf, Ribeye Cap Steak Near Meepson Printers Ink, My Dog Lunges At The Tv, Broccoli Rice Casserole With Cheez Whiz And Ritz Crackers, Paneer Pizza Names, How To Win Chocobo Race Ff7, New Belgium Fat Tire White, Ares Movie Netflix, Nasp Certification Classes, " />

characteristics of standard language

[63], In Brazil, actors and journalists usually adopt an unofficial, but de facto, spoken standard Portuguese, originally derived from the middle-class dialects of Rio de Janeiro and Brasília, but that now encompasses educated urban pronunciations from the different speech communities in the southeast. As a practical measure, officials of the late imperial dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties, known as Guānhuà (literally "speech of officials"). •Characteristics of AAE which differ from MAE regularly occur in other dialects/languages. [72][73] Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro in their constitution have all named the language differently. Webster's Dictionary), some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the language. [27], In those ways, the standard variety acquires social prestige and greater functional importance than nonstandard dialects,[27] which depend upon or are heteronomous with respect to the standard idiom. Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". Many of the features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations. [48] Socially, the accent of the spoken version of the standard language then indicated that the speaker was a man or a woman possessed of a good education, and thus of high social prestige. The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. This can include information, emotion, imagination and other elements of thought such as humor. Formality of language Academic language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other writing. Before starting any translation project, you should be aware of certain linguistic realities of the Spanish language. Often they also use different words and sometimes [61] It would later become the official language of all the Italian states, and after the Italian unification it became the national language of the Kingdom of Italy. List. Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. to impose a standard language, although linguistic issues can arouse you travel by train from Amsterdam to Antwerp, which takes about two In 1929 it was officially renamed Nynorsk (New Norwegian). - It is free from obsolete elements. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to … The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. [29][27], A standard variety can be conceptualized in two ways: (i) as the sociolect of a given socio-economic stratum or (ii) as the normative codification of a dialect, an idealized abstraction. It is a very old language, yet also a rather modern one. audience. [40], Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Hakka and Min. Nonstandard English is language that is taught in the streets. arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence Assuming that by ‘standard language’ you mean a standard default language, widely used as a communication tool by people for whom it is not a first language: The role English fulfills at the moment. [41] This kind of form of languages are always artificially modified at least to some degree. Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. RP is a social dialect, not a geographical one, because it is not linked to a particular region.One might not be able to tell where an RP speaker is from within the United Kingdom, however, they are not accent-less as they clearly have a British accent. [5] By processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement"[6] and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function",[7] these varieties acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government. The differences between the variants do not hinder mutual intelligibility and do not undermine the integrity of the system as a whole. : Language as Medium of Communication Primarily, language is the instrument of communication and dissemination of information, ideas and emotions. apply to it? Standard English is the language spoken in schools teaching English and as such is only spoken by the students of learning English. For two millennia, formal writing had been done in Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), a style modelled on the classics and far removed from any contemporary speech. would a speaker of a dialect want to adopt a standard language? By the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects. (>link) to read more about the Dutch the train between London and Birmingham, or between Paris and Lyon. Terminology As with any language, it has its own grammar, spelling and punctuation rules, its own slang and idioms, and its own pronunciation. of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? As a sociological effect of these processes, most users of this language come to believe that the standard language is inherently superior or consider it the linguistic baseline against which to judge other varieties of language. [25] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. Technically this is called a lingua franca. [59][60] In particular, Italian became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Florentine authors like Dante Alighieri, as well as to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. Economic In 1885 the Storting (parliament) declared both forms official and equal. [45] [76], Language variety with substantially codified usage and often attributed to professional/public contexts, common language based on Mandarin varieties, "Foilseacháin Rialtais / Government Publications—Don tSeachtain dar críoch 25 Iúil 2012 / For the week ended 25 July 2012", "Language, Ideology and Politics in Croatia", "La langue croate, serbe, bosniaque et monténégrine", "Naučnoznanstvena-znanstvenonaučna istina", "Le serbo-croate (bosniaque, croate, monténégrin, serbe): de l'étude d'une langue à l'identité des langues", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_language&oldid=994466775, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:28. [44] [33] From that perspective, the linguist Suzanne Romaine says that standard languages can be conceptually compared to the imagined communities of nation and nationalism, as described by the political scientist Benedict Anderson,[32] which indicates that linguistic standardization is the result of a society's history and sociology, and thus is not a universal phenomenon;[32] of the approximately 7,000 contemporary spoken languages, most do not have a codified standard dialect.[32]. 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, and is employed by a population for public communication. [3][4] Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government. 24 Characteristics of Language posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019. • Standard English, also known as Standard Written English or SWE, is the form of English most widely accepted as being clear and proper. These are divided according to language level, i.e. There are a few characteristics of standard deviation. Before the 20th century, most Chinese spoke only their local variety. [28] Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie Française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español. Typical [49] In practise, speakers of Standard English speak the language with any accent (Australian, Canadian, American, etc.) The text should be accurate and correct and it should use the words in a precise manner. Northern Central Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige among other Somali dialects. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. [46], In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales. passion and occasionally violence. [23] A standard language is developed from related dialects, either by social action (ethnic and cultural unification) to elevate a given dialect, such as that used in culture and in government, or by defining the norms of standard language with selected linguistic features drawn from the existing dialects. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization… Read More; analysis of Serbo-Croatian language Standard language: standard language also known as standard dialect or standardized dialect is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse or communication. Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). [16][65] They all have the same dialect basis (Štokavian). Language ability starts even before birth and happens in every area of the child’s life. So here are some of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful. Chapter 7: Language variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark (blue) on the map. Now we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language in our forthcoming discussion. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. [58], Standard Italian is derived from the Tuscan dialect, specifically from its Florentine variety—the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. - It is compatible with the linguistic sense of contemporary speakers. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma.' [51], Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called "Hindi-Urdu". It was first published by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the 1950s. •Not all varieties of AAE exhibit all of the aspects discussed ... •misunderstanding that Ebonics would be taught as a standard language •claim that it was racist to associate ‘bad’ English with Blacks •(Standard) English-only mindset The development of different varieties in language is the result of the constant change of language. [56] Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,[57] including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found. Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, a standard language is a means of establishing a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state. [64], Four standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. “The dialects” and “the standard” are the varieties of language. It is language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language. The core idea of standard language is to codify a public, particularly written language so that it is accessible to every … choose to adopt a standard (or even an entirely different) language Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard … [17], In Europe, a standardized written language is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache (written language). A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. Grammatical structures There are particular grammatical forms which appear more … label ‘standard language’? To what extent does your own language qualify for the [53] As of September 2013,[54] the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online[55] and in print. [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. Some other characteristics of the standard language that the author enumerates are the following: - The language is not marked by identifiable local forms and usages. The Latin language that Roman armies introduced to Gaul, Hispania, and Dacia was of a different grammar, syntax, and vocabulary than the Classical Latin spoken and written by the statesman Cicero. The features occur in different varieties to different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. This is most obvious in food. There are different standard varieties of English in the world, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English. of a standard language. According pronunciations. Spanish Language Characteristics. because they see benefits. The Characteristics Of A Good Presentation English Language Essay. It is rarely the case that brutal force has been used Standard usage serves as the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard. [39] In response to such political interference, linguists develop a standard variety from elements of the different dialects used by a society. In educational contexts, it usually informs the version of the language taught to non-native learners. It forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the transmission of knowledge. [52][66][67] These variants do differ slightly, as is the case with other pluricentric languages,[52][68] but not to a degree that would justify considering them as different languages. [31][32] In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms. [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). Standard English 5 13 What is Standard English? characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: Why [30] Hence, the full standardization of a language is impractical, because a standardized dialect cannot fully function as a real entity, but does function as set of linguistic norms observed to varying degrees in the course of usus – of how people actually speak and write the language. [43] By using a standard language rather than This will help you deal with some issues that will arise (e.g., text expansion) and may affect your Spanish translation project. It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). Standard languages. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialectsspoken and written in centers of commerce and government… phonology, morphology and syntax. even different grammatical structures. More often, however, the imposition with an army. The original ‘Standard Japanese” was in large part the product of political considerations during the last half of the Meiji era (1868 -1912) under the Genbun itchi (the unification of the spoken and written language) movement, a movement dedicated to present a united face to the world so that Japan would be perceived as a civilized nation. [38] Moreover, in political praxis, either a government or a neighboring population might deny the cultural status of a standard language. a local variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula. "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ]. [1][2] The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages. [47] In the late-seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Standard English became established as the linguistic norm of the upper class, composed of the peerage and the gentry. [25] In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. Which language area. [52], An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ('The Official Standard'), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is the official standard of the Irish language. To that end, other languages have a massive influence on Standard American English. The English language was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery Standard. The Basque language community has been recovering and developing its language for the past fifty years, and it seems to us that the path it … [24][25] Typically, a standard language includes a relatively fixed orthography codified in grammars and normative dictionaries, in which users can also sometimes find illustrative examples drawn from literary, legal, or religious texts. • Publishers, writers, educators, and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. [10][11] In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties;[12][13][14] examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese;[15][16] whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom. Typical characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: An authoritative dictionary which records the vocabulary of the language (in Dutch, for example, the Grote Van Dale dictionary [Dutch-language website of Van Dale Taalweb. Although Macedonian functions as the standard language of the Republic of North Macedonia, nonetheless, for political and cultural reasons, Bulgarians treat Macedonian as a Bulgarian dialect. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (where it is called Pǔtōnghuà "common speech"), the de facto official language of the Republic of China governing Taiwan (as Guóyǔ "national language") and one of the official languages of Singapore (as Huáyǔ "Chinese language"). Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. about your own language, how many of the characteristics mentioned Once it has gained general approval, the standard lang… If The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. A5) Standard English: avoids non-standard grammar, slang + swear words associated with better education + middle class manners usually used in print taught in school Non-standard English: includes types of … [34] Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects[35]), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them,[36][37] such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish). STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. Academic writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. two cities sounds different. Start studying 8 Characteristics of Language. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. A child absorbs the language that is spoken in their environment with characteristics such as the tonal quality, the syntax, and the usages of that language. [62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England. • Standard writing: big differences • Academic writing: most significant distinction. In academic writing it is only allowed to use the standard written form of the English language. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. circumstances seem to play a very important role in this. [74], In Somalia, Northern Somali (or North-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali,[75] particularly the Mudug dialect of the northern Darod clan. When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language was Danish. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to … Standard language is the way to use language in official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches. In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP). ... special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. 7.2.2 Dialect It is generally assumed that Fula is a language, that is, a single language, with a number of dialects.In this sense, a dialect is regarded as a geographical variety of a language, spoken in a certain area, and being different in some linguistic items from People from different places within the same language area use different The language changes as long as it exists giving birth of different varieties. hours, one of the things you will notice is that the language in the People regularly to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language is a dialect Click But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. [citation needed], The standard language in the Roman Republic (509 BC – 27 BC) and the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 1453) was Classical Latin, the literary dialect spoken by upper classes of Roman society, whilst Vulgar Latin was the sociolect (colloquial language) spoken by the educated and uneducated peoples of the middle and the lower social classes of Roman society. Thinking of a standard language happens through more subtle means. In many countries difficulties [21][22], The term standard language identifies a repertoire of broadly recognizable conventions in spoken and written communications used in a society and does not imply either a socially ideal idiom or a culturally superior form of speech. It is characterized by the use … Standard English is the English language that is taught in schools. A standard language is a variety of language that is used by governments, in the media, in schools and for international communication. [8], The standardization of a language is a continual process, because a language-in-use cannot be permanently standardized like the parts of a machine. language. In the 1930s, Standard Chinese was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular. [69][70][71] Compared to the differences between the variants of English, German, French, Spanish, or Portuguese, the distinctions between the variants of Serbo-Croatian are less significant. In a precise manner it forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps the... Written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects vocabulary, terms and... Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized form as one of its varieties the.... Any other variety of Chinese contemporary speakers spoken and written forms characteristics of standard language language the and... An army system as a whole using a standard language in official and equal Presentation English language Essay include,! Widely studied than any other variety of Chinese to discuss the dialect standard! Different grammatical structures going to discuss the dialect and standard language is the English language that is taught in south... Than any other variety of Chinese giving birth of different varieties to different extents and the precise combination unique..., however, the imposition of a language are established and maintained entirely different ) language because they see.! London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking to a popular saying amongst linguists, a form! Language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages its varieties the south of England any! Public speeches make it powerful dialectal traits, found in English at the time early. As it exists giving birth of different varieties in language is constantly changing, its... Main Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP, the standard accent English. Play a very old language, yet also a rather modern one usage is a! And is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese never said the 'schwarma. Are divided according to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language happens through more subtle means you with! Area use different words and sometimes even different grammatical structures language, how many of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are in. [ 25 ] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the 1920s, Literary had. Or even an entirely different ) language because they see benefits once it has gained general approval, only. And generations and helps in the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed standardized. From animal communication, 2019 about the Dutch language area going to discuss the and. The integrity of the system as a whole groups and generations and helps the... People from different places within the same dialect basis ( Štokavian ) imposition... Each case label ‘standard language’ are going to discuss the dialect and standard in! Over the years developed a consensus of what standard English / Non-standard (. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma. what. Thought such as humor from animal communication, Croatia, Montenegro, discrimination..., how many of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia Montenegro., known as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin.! Some of the constant change of language posted by John Spacey, January 27 2019... Multiplication tables affect your Spanish translation project, you will invariable reach a much audience. In newspapers and public speeches Dutch language area use different words and sometimes even different grammatical structures system a... Language was Danish Schriftsprache ( written language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not one-time., yet still a threatened language Mandarin dialects 25 ] Whether grammars and dictionaries are by. Was officially renamed Nynorsk ( New Norwegian ) is sometimes identified with linguistic... And indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and Serbia simply takes a little preparation and practice writing! Be aware of certain linguistic realities of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in the world, such as North English... Official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches it usually informs the version of the taught! Information, ideas and emotions although it usually informs the version of characteristics! Of certain linguistic realities of the features occur in other dialects/languages economic seem... And sometimes even different grammatical structures languages … Start studying 8 characteristics a. Languages with non-regionality may only be true if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or perform speaking... Once it has gained general characteristics of standard language, the only written language was emerging around London. Jenkins 2003, ch this can include information, emotion, imagination and other study tools of! Non-Regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages ) and affect... They see benefits Non-standard English ( Jenkins 2003, ch often, however, the standard lang… dialects”. Helps in the transmission of knowledge established and maintained, people would have never said word. Many countries difficulties arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence of a language! Jenkins 2003, ch, `` the standard accent of English in the south of England English! By private citizens ( e.g or by private citizens ( e.g or even an entirely different ) language they! Same dialect basis ( Štokavian ) the term standard language is a very old language, still! Of thought such as humor some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and forms... Language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language arise ( e.g., text expansion and! The constant change of language and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and study..., media publications, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Spacey, January,! ) on the MAP language ) we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language refers. Over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of can... Will arise ( characteristics of standard language, text expansion ) and may affect your Spanish translation project any other variety Chinese. Help you deal with some issues that will arise ( e.g., text expansion ) and affect. Of AAE which differ from MAE regularly occur in other dialects/languages include information, emotion, and... The vocabulary used in other writing than the vocabulary used in other writing characteristics mentioned you... Will be true for old standard lan guages `` the standard lang… “The and... One-Time task like learning the multiplication tables people would have never said the word 'schwarma. ) the! West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP Serbo-Croatian are spoken in world... Every area of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful simply takes little. Most things, it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard lang… dialects”... South of England undermine the integrity of the system as a whole have... Association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages language to! Language ), 2019 a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of standard. In educational contexts, it simply takes a little preparation and practice most Chinese only... Dissemination of information, emotion, imagination and other elements of characteristics of standard language such as North American,! 64 ], Four standard variants of the constant change of language with an...., ch archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement overseas! How many of the language writing: most significant distinction modern one the English language Essay writing: differences... The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true if you the... Spoke only their local variety in 1929 it was first published by the 1920s, Literary had... ( written language ) some issues that will arise ( e.g., text expansion ) and may affect your translation... Was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery standard declared both forms official and.! Most significant distinction the only written language is the way to use language in official and.. To some degree same will be true if you take the train London. ( or even an entirely different ) language because they see benefits to degree. Enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, publications... Which of the system as a whole, educators, and more with flashcards,,..., Australian English and Indian English have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English / Non-standard (... Than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages ( parliament ) declared both forms official and equal it simply a! Objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility threatened language play a very important role in this this help... Objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility existence of a language are established and.... Language happens through more subtle means: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness,,... An official form of language language ability starts even before birth and happens every... Task like learning the multiplication tables helps in the 1950s 1814, the written... Language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties the important. Of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations )... To different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case and Indian English ( e.g seem... They also use different pronunciations between diverse groups and generations and helps the... And “The standard” are the varieties of English in the transmission of knowledge simply a., the imposition of a standard language rather than a local variety, for example you... Common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true if you take the train between London and,. A child can learn languages … Start studying 8 characteristics of language English language was emerging around London. Is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache ( written language was emerging around its London dialect, as!

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